Treat Your Feet to Reduce Spring Injury Risk

By John Fiore, PT
The spring running season is underway. With Runner’s Edge Events Trail Series and Run Wild Missoula races taking place nearly every weekend, now is the time to treat your feet to reduce injury risk. The human foot is comprised of 28 bones and their associated ligaments, tendons, and muscles. This month’s article will focus on the plantar fascia which plays a large role in the Windlass Mechanism which improves intrinsic foot support. Spring is the season when plantar fascia injuries increase. Early treatment is key to avoid season-ending pain.
The plantar fascia is a thick fibrous band of connective tissue which runs from the front of the calcaneus (heel bone) to the base of the toes. It acts as a last resort to stabilize the longitudinal arch of the foot. Characterized by pain in the heel region of the arch of the foot,

 

plantar fasciitis is the the most common cause of heel pain requiring medical care. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people will develop plantar fasciitis in their lifetime, resulting in one million visits per year to medical visit annually. Because plantar fasciitis is often a chronic condition, understanding the causes and treatment options will lead to effective resolution.
Plantar fasciopathy is a more accurate term to describe heel and arch pain as it includes the inflammatory condition (plantar fasciitis), and degenerative condition (plantar fasciosis) of the plantar fascia. Plantar fasciitis occurs when the thick, fibrous plantar fascia becomes inflamed due to poor foot strength, repetitive arch strain, or faulty foot-ankle biomechanics. Plantar fasciosis describes the non-inflamed degenerative state of the plantar fascia due to repetitive stress.
Diagnosing plantar fasciitis involves palpating its attachment on the front of the calcaneus (heel bone). Pain is experienced during prolonged standing, running, descending stairs, and most notably upon rising and walking across the floor first thing in the morning. Additional causes of heel and plantar pain to be ruled out by your physician or physical therapist include bone stress reaction, stress fracture, localized nerve entrapment, lumbar S1 radiculopathy. Predisposing factors to plantar fasciitis include repetitive impact (distance running, jumping), rapid increase in activity level or mileage, poor intrinsic foot-ankle support, poor running biomechanics, and obesity (BMI >30).
Effective treatment of plantar fasciopathy includes four phases:
Acute Pain Phase: During the acute pain phase, pain must be reduced by avoiding running or prolonged standing, support through taping, anti-inflammatories (if inflammation is present), and reducing impact through gel heel cup and comfortable footwear. Isometric toe flexor exercises, active stretching techniques for the plantar fascia and gastroc-soleus muscle group will improve foot and ankle function.
Gradual Loading Phase: Manual physical therapy, progressive lower leg and ankle resisted exercises are added during this phase, and underlying hip, glut, and core weaknesses are addressed. Gradual plantar fascia loading exercises begin with double leg heel raises followed single leg heel raises as tolerated.
Heavy Loading Phase: Once single leg heel raises are tolerated pain-free, a barefoot modified (towel roll beneath toes) single leg calf raise progression is commenced. The Rathleff loading program (Rathleff et al 2014) continues to add resistance to single leg heel raise progressions over four weeks, building eccentric strength and tension tolerance. Running is reintroduced upon successful completion of the Rathleff program. A 2D video running analysis is vital to insure proper running biomechanics to reduce re-injury.
Successful long-term return to distance running requires regular plantar fascia release, foot intrinsic strength, and lower leg mobility and strengthening exercises. Proper footwear, adequate recovery following exercise, and gradual increases in training load will help keep plantar fasciitis and other foot issues from returning. The experts at Sapphire Physical Therapy can evaluate your running gait, detect any form or strength issues, and develop a foot injury prevention and treatment program to meet your individual needs. Call Sapphire Physical Therapy, (406) 549-5283, or learn more at www.sapphirept.com and don’t let your feet keep you from meeting your spring running goals.
1.Riddle DL, Pulisic M, Pidcoe P, Johnson RE. Risk factors for plantar fasciitis: a matched case-control study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003:85-A:872-7
2 Riddle DL, Schappert SM. Volume of ambulatory care visits and patterns of care for patients diagnosed with plantar fasciitis: a national study of medical doctors. Foot Ankle Int. 2004 May. 25(5):303-10

Reducing Spring Overuse Injuries: A Closer Look at Posterior Tibilias

     Warmer spring temperatures and upcoming races mean longer runs and an increased risk of overuse injuries. Spring is common time for overuse injuries to the tibialis posterior muscle as it’s function in vital to efficient running. The tibialis posterior is a small, thin, unassuming muscle which plays a vital role in walking and running locomotion. Located on the posterior aspect of the lower leg, the tibialis posterior is deep to the easily recognizable calf musculature (gastroc-soleus muscle complex). The tibialis posterior originates on the posterior side of the fibula and tibia, and inserts on the navicular, second cuneiform, and 2nd , 3rd , and 4th metatarsal bones of the foot. Tibialis posterior weakness or injury can sideline even the most seasoned runner. Evaluation of strength and functional activity is vital to properly detecting tibialis posterior dysfunction.
     The function of the tibialis posterior is much more important than its diminutive presence in the lower leg. It acts to invert (turn inward) the foot and ankle, supinate the foot (raises the arch) and aids in dorsiflexion (upward motion of the foot) of the foot and ankle. Without the tibialis posterior, the stability of the foot and ankle is compromised significantly during walking and running. Consider for a moment a flat foot. The term flat foot has a negative connotation, but pronation (or lowering of the arch of the foot) is necessary to absorb
shock and accommodate to uneven surfaces. Supination, however, is necessary to bring a pronated, flat foot into a position of stability for push-off while walking or running. Efficient, pain-free running is dependent on the ability of the tibialis posterior to bring the foot and ankle into a supported position (through supination). Without the action of the tibialis posterior, the foot and lower leg are subjected to increased tensile strain during the stance and push-off phases of gait. Injuries such as plantar fasciitis, medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints), knee pain, hip pain, iliotibial band pain, and even low back pain can often be traced in whole or part to a deficient or weak tibialis posterior muscle.
     Prevention and treatment of tibialis posterior dysfunction begins with body awareness and smart training habits. Tibialis posterior specific strengthening exercises include heel raises with slow lowering to the ground. Adding mild inversion as you lower your heel to the ground will bias the tibialis posterior. Band resisted ankle inversion with the ankle in plantarflexion will strengthen the tibialis posterior in non-weight bearing. Gradually increasing your mileage and easing into rough trail terrain will reduce overuse injuries in the tibialis posterior as well. If your calves or feet are tired or painful after running or weight bearing exercise, allow your body to rest, and recover for 1-3 days. If you continue to experience pain after 3 days a physical therapy evaluation may be indicated. Your physical therapist will rule out injuries such as a stress fracture, sprain, strain, compartment syndrome, or circulatory issues for which you will be referred to your physician for diagnostic testing. If the physical therapy evaluation is negative for serious injury, a Sapphire PT physical therapist will test for underlying weakness and-or inflammation responsible for your symptoms. Understanding the mechanics of walking and running and the contribution of other factors such as hip and core strength and running technique will narrow the treatment plan to a concise set of rehabilitative and preventative exercises. Your physical therapist will also guide you in a progressive return-to- activity plan based upon your response to PT treatment. The take home message is to take action when foot or medial ankle pain limits your ability exercise.
John Fiore
Sapphire Physical Therapy
john@sapphirept.com

Running Analysis to Improve Efficiency

by

John Fiore, PT

The strongest predictors of running injury include a prior history of running injury, running throughout the year without a break, and a rapid increase in running mileage of >10% per week (Br J Sports Med 2007). Identifying compensatory movement patterns through a comprehensive running evaluation identifies underlying faulty biomechanics and strength deficits.

The January partial thaw is behind us and many Missoulians are anxious to hit the roads and trails. The race season arrives early in mountain towns such as Missoula. Before ramping up your weekly running mileage, however, consider the importance of improving the efficiency with which you run. Once reserved for elite athletes and research subjects alone, state of the art running analysis is available in Missoula.

Sapphire Physical Therapy provides on-side real-time 2D running gait analysis. We are excited to share this informative, interactive, diagnostic technology with the Missoula running community. LED markers and high-speed cameras provide real-time feedback for both the runner and the physical therapist. Sapphire Physical Therapy uses the Simi Aktisys 2D system. Developed in Germany, the Simi Aktisys software records joint angles along the frontal, posterior, and sagittal (side) planes of motion as a person runs. Planes of movement and joint ankles (ankle, knee, hip, trunk) are recorded and observed as a person runs. The software analyses the measured video data and an easy to read, usable PDF report is produced for the runner and physical therapist. Utilizing 2D video running analysis during a physical therapy evaluation takes the guesswork out of determining the underlying cause of movement inefficiency and/or injury.

In addition to our 2D video running analysis system, we now offer provide a dynamic accelerometer evaluation which can be done simultaneously. Accelerometer date includes foot strike pattern, cadence, step length, impact force (measured in Gs of force), braking force, pronation angle, and pronation velocity. Asymmetries identified through accelerometer measurements are used in conjunction with visual video analysis to modulate impact forces and reduce future injury risk. Real world accelerometer data may also be collected during outdoor running session on the roads of trails. Following a run, the subject’s data can be downloaded to our computer and viewed for practical running analysis feedback.

Once a compensatory movement pattern is recorded, the runner can return to the treadmill (or roads-trails in the case of an accelerometer evaluation) and make changes in his or her running mechanics while observing themselves in real-time on the monitor screen. Individualized exercises addressing observed compensations or weaknesses address the cause of observed compensations to improve running efficiency. Walking biomechanics is fairly universal in healthy individuals, but running biomechanics is diverse and very difficult to accurately assess visually or with a hand-held video device in one plane. The Sapphire Physical Therapy staff looks forward to helping Missoula runners improve their running efficiency and determining the underlying cause of recurrent injuries.

Cost for a 2D video running analysis with accelerometer evaluation is $150.  The hour-long appointment includes filming, review of video data, PDF printout, a discussion of possible compensations impacting biomechanics, and individualized exercise and treatment recommendations. Call Sapphire Physical Therapy (406-549-5283) to schedule your video running analysis or email me (john@sapphirept.com) for additional information.

 

John Fiore, PT

Static Versus Dynamic Stretching

(Should runners stretch and if so how?)

John Fiore, PT

www.sapphirept.com

Confusion and controversy exists regarding the proper way for runners to stretch. Some runners stretch regularly while some never stretch at all. Stretching confusion originates in choosing the most effective way to stretch. Should I stretch to reduce injury risk? Will stretching help or hurt my running performance? What muscle(s) if any should I stretch?  Understanding the difference between static stretching and dynamic stretching as well as when to utilize each is an important first step in developing an individualized stretching routine to meet your running goals.

Athletes generally stretch before or after training and competition because we were once told we should. Historically, stretching routines were fairly universal for athletes regardless of body type or sport. Research has shown, however, that static stretching warm-up routines actually decreases athletic performance while a dynamic stretching warm-up routine improves performance by decreasing injury risk (Perrier ET, Pavol MJ, Hoffman MA. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jul:25(7):1925-31 & J. Wilson, PhD; Journal of Strength and Conditioning).  

Here are some great dynamic stretches for runners.

Static stretches for runners include calf, hip flexor, quadriceps, and iliotibial band stretches.  Typically held for at least 60-seconds, the purpose of static stretching is to increase flexibility.  Static stretching targets collagen (the main component of tendons and connective tissue such as fascia) elasticity as well as muscle length. The problem with static stretching as a warm-up routine is two-fold. Increasing the length of a muscle or connective tissue in the body is a long-term commitment. Stretching statically for 60-seconds prior to a run or race will not result in long-term effects. The time to do a static stretching routine is after your run or race is over, or when your body is at rest. Static stretching requires a time commitment, but can be an effective means of reducing injury if done properly. Static stretching has an inhibitory neuromuscular effect on the body. Research has shown that a statically-stretched muscle produces less force for up to an hour following static stretching.

In contrast, dynamic stretching involves active movement of a limb (and the associated muscles and joints) associated with running prior to training and racing to prepare the body for movement. Dynamic stretching positively influences the neuromuscular component of running-specific muscles. Within the muscle-tendon junction of our lower extremities are structures called Golgi tendon organs. The Golgi tendon organs monitor muscle tension during activity and trigger the body’s protective mechanism of guarding or co-contraction to decrease injury risk. Dynamic stretching as a warm-up prior to activities such as running has been shown to inhibit the reactivity of the Golgi tendon organs. Targeted muscle contraction during dynamic stretching has a positive effect on the Golgi tendon organs.  The net result of dynamic warm-up is a body with a short-term, functional increase in muscle length without the strength inhibition characteristic of static stretching.

A dynamic warm-up routine for runners should target the hips, quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteals, gastroc-soleus, intrinsic foot musculature, and upper body-torso. Dynamic warm-up is simple, requires no equipment, can be done wherever you are. To summarize, the goal of a pre-running dynamic warm-up routine include: Moving the joints, warming up the musculature for running, and decrease the body’s resistance (protective guarding) to intense or sustained activity through dynamic stretching.

John Fiore, PT

 

Calf Strength and Performance in the Master’s Runner

Addressing Age-Related Calf Weakness

An average weekend in Missoula, Montana confirms the fact that 30 million people ran at least 50 days annually in the United States in 2012-2013. Running efficiently and injury-free, however, is more elusive. Nearly 79% of all runners experience a running injury annually. As runners age, the primary site of overuse injuries changes from the knee to the Achilles, ankle, and calf. Both observation (on the roads, trails, and in our running lab) and research correlates the increase lower leg injuries with altered running biomechanics and reduced calf muscle power measure as ground reaction (vertical) force.

Despite our best efforts to train consistently, understanding what happens to our running stride as we grow older allow us to focus our efforts on targeted lower leg strengthening to reduce injury risk and maximize running performance. A September 9, 2015 article in the New York Times brought to the forefront the work of Paul DeVita, a professor of kinesiology at East Carolina University in Greenville, N.C., and president of the American Society of Biomechanics.  Dr. DeVita’s 2016 research looked at running gait changes in a sample of 110 runners. The runners were a mix of male (54%) and female (48%) who had been injury free for at least 6 months. The age range was 23-59 years old. DeVita and his colleagues found that the older runners ran with a shorter stride length, a higher turnover (cadence) rate. The net result is a slower running pace which research has shown is due to altered running mechanics, decreased calf-lower leg muscle strength, and increased stiffness in the ankle with age. Between the ages of 20 and 60, runners typically experience a 31% reduction in ankle power, total power (ground reaction force to lift you off the ground and in a forward direction), along with a 13% decrease in stride length and running speed.

The statistics referenced above should be strong motivators to masters and young runners alike to be proactive with targeted strength training, especially in the off-season. With much of the mainstream running injury reduction focus targeted on foot strike pattern and core strength, the importance of the calf musculature (gastrocnemius, soleus) is often overlooked. Ankle stiffness predisposes one to developing further calf weakness. The calf muscle aids in initiating the push-off phase of the running stride, and plays a key role in absorbing impact as your foot hits the ground. The importance of the calf muscle in absorbing impact loads is phenomenal: 160-180 foot strikes per minute with 2.5 times your body weight plus the force of gravity exerted through each foot strike over “x” number of minutes running equals a HUGE demand placed through the foot and lower lower leg. Eccentric (resisting gravity) calf strengthening will increase the resilience and shock absorption properties of your calf musculature, while concentric (against gravity) and plyometric strengthening will increase the power generation of your calf muscle.

To summarize, DeVita’s research confirmed running stride length, speed, and lower leg muscle function decline in a linear manner with age.  Calf (gastroc-soleus muscle) and ankle strength declines with age as well.  A reduction in lower leg muscle strength (both concentric and eccentric) and ankle motion (dorsiflexion) shifts the burden of self-propulsion to our knees, hips and gluts which are already physically challenged by prolonged sitting and tight hip flexor muscles. Lower leg, foot, and Achilles tendon injuries become increasingly common in runners over forty. Gradual degradation of muscle and tendon tissue integrity and nerve innervation sets the stage for an increase in running-related overuse injuries. Stretching the calf and lower leg muscles, Active Release techniques, dynamic warm-up, and rolling are great ways to improve lower leg muscle tissue mobility. Lower leg, ankle, and foot strengthening exercises must be a part of every runner’s training program, not just those in the fourth decade of life and beyond.  Strengthening exercises should include single leg heel raises, heel drops, resisted ankle inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, and intrinsic foot strengthening exercises (see photos).

If you have been battling a lower leg issues or would like to participate in a 2D video running analysis, call or email the running injury and biomechanics experts at Sapphire PT. Our physical therapists will not only return to pain-free running, but also reduce future injury occurrence while improving your running efficiency and performance.  Targeted strengthening and muscle-tendon tissue mobility are the keys to improving running performance at any age.

John Fiore, PT

Sapphire Physical Therapy
john@sapphirept.com
www.sapphirept.com

References:

  1. Reynolds G, Why Runners Get Slower with Age. New York Times. 2015, Sept 9.

Running U. Running USA 2014 state of the sport – part ii: running industry report http://wwwrunningusaorg/2014-running-industry-report?returnTo=annual-reports. 2014.

2. Goss DL, Gross MT. A review of mechanics and injury trends among various running styles. US Army Med Dep J. 2012; 62–71.

3. McKean KA, Manson NA, Stanish WD. Musculoskeletal injury in the masters runners. Clin J Sport Med. 2006; 16 (2): 149–54.

4. DeVita P, Fellin RE, Seay JF. The relationship between age and running biomechanics. Med & Sci Sports & Exerc. 2016; 48 (1): 98-196.

5. Fukuchi RK, Stefanyshyn DJ, Stirling L, Duarte M, Ferber R. Flexibility, muscle strength and running biomechanical adaptations in older runners. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2014; 29 (3): 304–10.

 

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Sapphire PT Presentation at RE November 15th

Join Sapphire Physical Therapy on Wednesday, November 15 at 6:30 pm in the Runners Edge basement for an informative presentation. The presentation will focus on how impact loading rates during running relate to injury risk and discuss ways to reduce loading through simple running tips and targeted exercises. Handouts and presentation information will be provided along with refreshments and snacks.

The evening talks will be followed by an interactive demonstration using an accelerometer, which is a tool used to measure and track impact loads as well as foot strike pattern and limb asymmetries during running. The accelerometer is a great addition to Sapphire PT as it collects real-time data while individuals are running in their everyday environment including Missoula’s awesome trails. An outline of the evening’s speakers
and topics include:

– Dr. Willy, Ph.D., PT, a professor at the University of Montana School of Physical Therapy, is an expert in his field and in running injury research will define what impact loading is and discuss how it relates to running injury risk.

– Holly Warner, DPT, physical therapist at Sapphire PT who specializes in running gait analysis and in treating running injuries, will discuss practical ways to reduce impact.

– John Fiore, PT, owner of Sapphire PT and who specializes in running gait analysis and in treating running injuries will provide off-season training ideas to improve strength and running efficiency.

Join us to learn how to incorporate exercise and technology this winter to help you meet your goals and stay on track for 2018.