Does turning 40 or 50 equate to slower times? The latest science explains how to effectively combat the effects and subsequently the beliefs of age-ing.

A review of the research reveals a well-designed training plan for masters runners can boost fitness by naturally elevating testosterone, human growth hormone levels and running economy.

Research in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning found that people over 50 who identify running as their main source of exercise can lose five percent of their leg strength per year. A decrease in leg strength is often correlated with increased injury rate. A loss in strength reduces a runner’s running economy (RE). Studies from Australia have shown that RE is the most important variable for long distance runners and sets elite athletes apart in terms of performance.

What is running economy? According to Strength and Conditioning Coach, Karl Gilligan, “running economy is the energy demand for the given speed of the runner. Runners who have good running economy use less energy and therefore less oxygen than runners with poor RE at the same speed. As such, there is a strong association between RE and distance performance, with RE being a better predictor of performance than VO2 max in elite runners”.

A 2013 study investigated the effects of two strength-training protocols on running economy. The 16 masters marathon runners were randomly assigned to a maximal strength-training program, a regimen of moderate resistance training or a control group. The runners continued to follow an endurance-running schedule consisting of four or five days of training per week.

After six weeks, the maximal strength-training group showed a 6 percent improvement in RE at marathon pace, translating into 6 percent less energy used while running the same pace. The moderate resistance group that used the same exercises but with lighter resistance showed no such gain. A 6 percent improvement in running economy equates to about 50 seconds faster for a 40 min 10k runner.

The stronger your legs are the less amount of muscle force is needed for each stride thus the runner runs faster at the same effort level.

How do you fit this research into your own training? I suggest to begin with running specific body weight or light weight exercises for 8 weeks. You then would transition into circuit training for another block of 8 weeks and lastly incorporate a blend of circuit training combined with plyotmetrics and maximal running specific training twice per week 8 weeks prior to competition. An example of maximal running specific weight training is three sets of three to four reps of walking lunges and 1 legged squats using a weight that is 85 to 90 percent of the max you can lift.

In November’s Runner’s Edge coaching tips, I will review the research on how to design a training plan to naturally increase your hormone levels for optimal performance.

Please contact me anytime with questions.

Nicole Hunt

*Image(s) from Google search images

During the Olympic broadcasts, Michael Phelps’ red circles caught my eye. I had an inkling what the circles were for but I wanted to investigate the evidence what motivated Michael Phelps to incorporate that into his Olympic Games preparation. After doing some research, I discovered the dark red circles were the result of a traditional Chinese medicine technique called Myofascial Decompression (MFD) also known as “cupping”.

The cup is usually made from bamboo, glass or plastic. Fire cupping is often used where one quickly heats the inside of the cup with fire. Suction is then created when placed on the skin. Typically, 4 to 6 cu
ps are used when adhering to the skin for about 15 to 20 minutes.

According to Acupuncture Today, “The negative pressure created by the suction stimulates the local acupuncture point, this increases the Qi (energy) and blood flow through the meridian to loosen up tight muscles, to relieve pain, and to detoxify and re-balance organ function.” The discoloration is made from the breaking of capillaries on the surface of the skin. The main benefits are encouraging the inflammatory response of the body and speeding up muscular and soft tissue recovery after injury and strain.

Brandi Ross, a certified athletic trainer from UC who also works with athletes at the Olympic training center says, “I’ve been using MFD in my practice for over a year now. I’ve used it therapeutically to treat almost any injury, from plantar fasciitis to hamstring strains to myofascial restrictions unrelated to injury. I’m surprisingly pleased with how many of the athletes are asking for repeat treatments. Although they all complain about how sore it makes them, they are pleased and excited with the outcomes: increased flexibility, fewer restrictions, and an overall feeling of being better”.

This therapy has spread to other elite sports such as boxing, gymnastics and tennis.

Whether it works or not is up to debate. More research is needed. For now, elite athletes are utilizing cupping therapy to help heal from injuries, speed recovery between workouts and boost their performance.

If you are interested in trying cupping, here is a link to find practitioners in the United States including Montana. For more info, I’ve included a link of a CBS video explaining the benefits of cupping including a demonstration of fire cupping.

Nicole Hunt

Please contact me anytime with questions

*Image(s) from Google search images




*This review was done by Vo Von Sehlen, a photographer for The Runner’s Edge and a local runner. Enjoy!

Over the past few years, I ran quite a few hundred miles in my Altra Olympus 1.0 shoes. However, for as long as I have been running in them – they were fine on not too technical terrain – I thought of potential design improvements for this particular model.

With great anticipation, I was waiting for an update. Then, a couple months ago, the Olympus 2.0 – the supposedly new-and-improved – was on the shelf. Let me tell you, the initial feel, and I mean the very first second my foot was in this shoe, was a feeling of AHHHHH! So comfortable! Such a great fit! After only a few steps of in-store jogging, I knew, without a doubt, that I WANTED THEM, right then and there!

The next day, I put them to work! Out of the box, 15 miles of all trail; a few thousand vertical feet up and down. Verdict after one run: I LOVE THEM!

For those not familiar with the Missoula terrain and awesome trail system, we can easily access trails right from downtown (or in my case, from my house), gaining 2,000 – 3,000 vertical feet within only a few miles. With that said, on my next trail run, I went up to the Beacon, on University Mountain, here in Missoula, Mont., for an even tougher test: 20-plus miles, a lot of vertical – some of which might be at a 40-percent incline / decline.

Especially during the very steep ups and downs, did I notice some of the much-needed improvements from the first version of the Olympus. In the past, I’ve taken my Olympus 1.0 up there plenty of times, thus had a very good understanding of the shortfalls. The Altra Olympus 2.0, however, performed fantastically, both going up as well as down, and were comfortable even after running for many hours.

One of the excellent upgrades is a drastically-improved outsole, which now is more aggressive and much more gripping!

Another very important upgrade I noticed is the mid-foot wrap, which was pretty loose in the previous version, and now is holding my feet much better in position – without restricting them. This better wrap prevents my feet from sliding around inside the shoe, and especially sliding forward on long downhill sections. Let me tell you, not getting the toes jammed during longer downhill running is a nice feeling!

Speaking of nice feeling, not just the initial feel of the Olympus 2.0, but also during multi-hour, long runs, in my opinion, this shoe is one of the most comfortable I have ever felt in a trail running shoe! The bigger toe box – which is one of the most noticeable differences in all Altra shoes – also adds to the comfort. When toes can spread out, naturally, and are not bunched up and restricted, one will notice a big difference during activities.

If you like a wonderfully cushioned trail running shoe that is performing well on many different surfaces and terrains, seriously, put your feet in a pair of Altra

Olympus 2.0. Take it for a jog around the block (or better yet, up the mountains, where they belong), to see for yourself, why I give them such praise. If you live or find yourself in western Montana, it’s a no brainier where to go to shop for them; head to the The Runner’s Edge in downtown Missoula – it’s one of the best Running Specialty stores in the country – literally!

Granted, every person’s foot is shaped differently, but I would be very surprised if you didn’t like the feel of these shoes, the second you put them on. Also, whether you are familiar with Altra running shoes or not, yes, they are “zero drop”, meaning the heel is at the same level as your forefoot. Some people, who have been wearing more traditional running shoes all of their lives, with up to 12mm of heel-to-toe drop shy away from such a concept. However, running on trails, where the surface is naturally uneven to begin with, and where one frequently goes up, down, steps on rocks and roots, and jumps over obstacles, the zero drop is not as much of a factor to get used to (as opposed to running on mostly flat asphalt, when you might want to give yourself a 6-week transition period). And, as all of this is my opinion, having various shoes and using them in a rotation, is always a good idea, not only for the transition period, but always. Your feet will love you for this!

A little about me, when I don’t run, I am a professional photographer, taking photos at a great many trail races throughout the year, during which I need to cover many miles (not all on actual trails) with lots of vertical, all while carrying a lot of gear. Needless to say, I pay close attention to the shoes I’m wearing for those gigs, as my footing needs to be secure, and my feet need to be comfortable for very long periods of time. I’m oftentimes out there for much longer than most athletes themselves. With that said, not only do I now run most of my trail runs in the Altra Olympus 2.0, I also am wearing them while working (i.e., taking photos)! So, if you also like to hike or take your dog out for longer walks on some trails, this shoe might be a great option for you, even for those activities.

As a disclaimer, I am NOT sponsored by, nor have I received any compensation from Altra for writing this review! The only reason I am writing about the Altra Olympus 2.0, is that I absolutely LOVE RUNNING IN THEM, and enjoy wearing them! Plus, I thought you might like to give them a try, too.

BTW, I also like running in Altra street running shoes. Currently, in the Torin 2.0, and was comfortably pacing an official pace group at the Missoula Marathon in that model a few weeks ago.

Just the other day, I literally ran across the Bob Marshall / Scapegoat Wilderness with a group of local runners. It was not a race, only a “just-because-we-like-to-run” Ultra-Marathon distance, which took us through some of Montana’s most spectacular and wild country. Again, needless to say, footwear was important, as once we got started, we were committed to finish, without the help of aid stations or a possibility of jumping into a sag wagon. As we ran through probably a dozen or more creeks and rivers, my feet were wet for a solid 14 hours, or 40 miles of the run. However, my feet were happy and comfortable. My choice of shoe, the Altra, Olympus 2.0!

Having so many shoe options to choose from, perhaps this review helped you a little, or at least inspired you to give the Altra Olympus 2.0 a consideration.

However, no matter what you decide to run in, have fun out there!

What is one of the secret weapons of top athletes when they want to run their fastest? Top runners know that there is a strong mind-body connection for peak running performance and to bridge that mind-body gap runners utilize mantras.

A mantra is a repeated word, sound or phrase that helps athletes achieve a strong focus and concentration on the running task at hand. When we think these mantras, the focus becomes a reality within ourselves and within our experience.

Doubts and distractions can derail your attempts, but a well-chosen mantra can keep you calm and on target. “Repeating choice words whenever you need to focus helps direct your mind away from negative thoughts and toward a positive experience,” says Stephen Walker, Ph.D., a sports psychologist in Boulder.

An effective mantra addresses what you want to feel, not the adversity you’re trying to overcome, says Robert J. Bell, Ph.D., a certified consultant of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology. In fact, when discomfort strikes, the worst thing you can do is embrace the pain, says Walker. “When you start thinking, Oh, this hurts, Oh, I have a side stitch, Oh, my legs are tired—those negative thoughts pile on,” he says. A good mantra diverts your mind from thoughts that reinforce the pain to thoughts that help you transcend it.

So what makes a good mantra? One that’s short, positive, instructive, and full of action words. I suggest preparing 3 mantras before your goal race and recite the mantras while visualizing your race.
Here are some inspiring mantras used by top runners:

This is what you came for.” —SCOTT JUREK, running 165.7 miles en route to breaking the American 24-hour record in May 2010

Define yourself.” —DEENA KASTOR, while winning the Chicago Marathon in 2005 and becoming the first American to win a major marathon since 1994

You’re tougher than the rest.” —SARAH REINERTSEN, in a half-Ironman qualifier that would earn her a spot at the Ironman World Championship, where she became the first female leg amputee to finish the event

Think strong, be strong, finish strong.” —RENEE METIVIER BAILLIE, winning the 2010 USATF Indoor 3000 meters. She wrote the words on her hand.
Choose one word from each section below to create a motivational mantra.

A – Run   Go   Stride   Sprint   Be

B – Strong   Fast   Quick   Light   Fierce

C – Think   Feel   Embrace   Be   Hold

D – Power   Speed   Brave   Bold   Courage
Here are 3 examples:

– Run Strong, Be Bold

– Be Light, Feel Speed

– Stride Fierce, Embrace Courage
Nicole Hunt
Speed Endurance Coaching
Please contact me anytime with questions

Shorten the race, legally.

This article will be short, it won’t take you long to read because I will go directly to the point. If you want to run your fastest time in a road race or trail race, you cut the course.  😉  Just kidding – you cut the tangents. Running tangents is a strange trig term meaning run the shortest legal distance in the race.

You run the tangents by running the straightest line legally possible from one corner to the next. See diagram below.

The most common mistake runners make when they run tangents is crossing the street or trail all at once and therefore not taking the straightest line possible to the next corner. See diagram below.

In the above diagram, the runner following the green path is traveling further than the runner following the red path.

A runner running an 8 minute average mile who does not cut the tangents could be 4 minutes slower in the marathon.

If you want to run your fastest time in any race, practice the course (if possible), and focus on running the tangents.

Nicole Hunt
Speed Endurance Coaching
Please contact me anytime with questions

“Allie just completed a 15-week clinical internship with John Fiore at Sapphire Physical Therapy.  Allie will joint the Sapphire PT staff the end of May.  Rachael Herynk, DPT currently specializes in women’s health and is a great treatment resource for urinary incontinence”.
-John Fiore, PT, Sapphire Physical Therapy

Urinary incontinence (UI) has been historically associated with the elderly and with childbearing women. Recent studies however have shown that physically fit, nulliparous (non-childbearing) women also suffer from UI, and that involvement in high-impact sports activity can increase the risk of incontinence.1

Urinary Incontinence is defined as an involuntary loss of urine. There are three main types of incontinence, which vary by symptoms: Stress incontinence is a loss of urine associated with activities that increase physical stress and pressure in the abdomen and bladder such as laughing, sneezing, coughing, exercising, and heavy lifting. Urge incontinence is losing a considerable amount of urine for no apparent reason after feeling a sudden, urgent need to void. Mixed incontinence most often involves a combination of stress and urge incontinence. It can include leakage of varying degrees with strenuous physical activity (stress), and a strong, sudden urge to urinate immediately, which does not allow the individual to make it to the toilet in time.

Though social or cultural factors may discourage women from reporting or seeking help for their symptoms, urinary incontinence is quite prevalent. Depending on populations surveyed, investigation methods, and definitions used, the prevalence ranges anywhere from 4%-39% in the general population, versus 28%-51.9% of athletes surveyed. Incontinence is shown to be higher in female elite athletes practicing high-impact sports. Women who attended gyms and performed high-impact exercises had a higher prevalence of UI than those who did not participate in any high-impact exercise.5

Some risk factors for the development of urinary incontinence include hard physical work, perimenopausal estrogen deficiency, constitutional weakening of connective tissue, obesity, and professional sports.5 Researchers Silva et al. (2013) suggest that high-impact sports involving abrupt and repeated increases in intra-abdominal pressures exceed perineal force resistance, which correlates with increased symptoms of stress and urge incontinence.5 According to a study by Thyssen et al., exercises that involved repetitive bouncing/jumping were associated with the highest incidence of incontinence. Higher rates were found in participants of gymnastics, ballet, aerobics, badminton, volleyball, athletics, handball, and basketball. During my clinical exposure to women’s health physical therapy, patients often reported “a flood” during downhill running.

Despite the high prevalence of Incontinence in general and athletic populations, studies show that fewer than 50% of women with incontinence seek help for their symptoms.2However, physical therapists who specialize in treatment of the pelvic floor can effectively reduce a woman’s symptoms of incontinence and enable her return to running and recreational activities. Physical therapy will address strengthening and coordination of pelvic floor muscles, postural education, pressure management, and will optimize running, jumping, and lifting mechanics.

Physical therapy is often an underutilized option for treatment of incontinence. If you are having symptoms of urinary incontinence, a physical therapist experienced in women’s health can help you get back to the physical activities you enjoy!

Allie Molnar, SPT

1) Jean-Baptiste J., Hermieu JF. Sport and urinary incontinence in women. Prog. Urol., 2010; 20(7):483-490. 2) Koch, L. (2006). Help-Seeking Behaviors of Women with Urinary Incontinence: An Integrative Literature Review. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 51(6). doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2006.06.004. 3) Kruger, J. A., Dietz, H. P., & Murphy, B. A. (2007). Pelvic floor function in elite nulliparous athletes. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol, 30(1), 81-85. doi:10.1002/uog.4027. 4) Hodges P, Sapsford A, Pengel LHM. Postural and respiratory functions of the pelvic floor muscles. Urol. Neurodynam. 2007;26:362-71. 5) Poświata, A., Socha, T., & Opara, J. (2014). Prevalence of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Elite Female Endurance Athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics,44(1). doi:10.2478/hukin-2014-0114. 6) Salvatore S, Serati M, Laterza R, Uccella S, Torella M, Bolis P-F. The impact of urinary stress incontinence in young and middle-age women practicing recreational sports activity: an epidemiological study. Br J Sports Med, 2009; 43(14): 1115-8.7) Da Silva Borin LC, Nunes FR, De Oliveira Guirro EC. Assessment of pelvic floor muscle pressure in female athletes. PMR, 2013; 5(3): 189-193
8) Thein-Nissenbaum, J. M., Thompson, E. F., Chumanov, E. S., & Heiderscheit, B. (2012). Low Back and Hip Pain in a Postpartum Runner: Applying Ultrasound Imaging and Running Analysis.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 42(7), 615-624. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.3941. 9) 7 Types of Incontinence. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2016, from